The Year 2000, or Y2K sparked a chain reaction of events that placed a growing burden on central information technology (IT) support divisions—in most cases, the same folks who support academic and research computing. Fear of the millennium bug temporarily diverted the attention of those who had been struggling with an increased number and severity of tech exploits. On September 11, 2001, an assault on the U.S. World Trade Center in New York City sent shock-waves around the globe, and a renewed interest in defense and security arose among all nations. In the U.S., it was necessary for universities and national laboratories to accommodate new policies relating to export controls, the transfer of intellectual property, software, and technologies. The Freedom of Information and Homeland Security Acts were quickly penned, and adopted.
The series of events occurred when institutional budgets were lean and the burden of compliance fell to IT support divisions who searched for creative ways to balance the budget (Miller, 2009). Consequently, in many cases IT communications, outreach and education personnel were displaced in favor of security staff. Travel and conferencing budgets were low-hanging fruit to be trimmed more aggressively each year. Asynchronous professional development was favored over any that involved travel and face-to-face engagement. The cost of travel escalated with the price of fuel. Travel was regarded by many as a luxury.
When the case was heard in early 2012, the U.S. government reacted to a 2010 incident where public funds had been abused by a federal agency. A subsequent chain-reaction of cutbacks has affected many U.S. agency travel and conferencing budgets, some pledging to cut them by an additional 40 percent. Because many global conference-goers are from U.S. agency-supported initiatives, their actions will have an impact on future conferencing everywhere (Zients, May 2012; Pellerin, June 2012).
Yet, for global STEM scholars who use advanced cyberinfrastructure for their research, and those who support the technology they use, travel and professional development go hand-in-hand. Graduate and postdoctoral scholars who are just learning to leverage performance technologies are most deeply affected by cutbacks. Professional organization and industry conferences are a point of convergence where skilled and novice professionals test-drive new technologies and meet current and future collaborators. While online education and grid-enabled technologies allow researchers to remotely-access resources, many processes are best learned through direct observation. Team-building, hands-on demonstrations, data management and resource provider site training are a few activities that are best learned through observation and direct engagement. For high-tech scholars who cannot travel, the processes of education, research innovation, international collaboration and discovery are impaired.
Additionally, mass reductions in travel and conferencing budgets mean fewer attendees at technical conferences. With fewer registration fees to support quality programming, the integrity and future of STEM conferences is in peril, not to mention the revenue lost to prospective host cities.